Biology of Skin

Learning About The Biology of Our Skin

Our skin forms a protective barrier – it protects the internal organs, as well as muscles bones and ligaments, blocks our internal bodies for us against germs and other organisms from getting inside and helps keep our body temperature regulated.

An average adult has 18 to 20 square feet of skin covering their bodies. It weighs approximately 6 pounds or 2.7kg. One square centimeter of skin is made up of 6 million cells. Skin on the human body has 5,000 sensory points. It consists of 100 sweat glands located throughout the skin system and 15 sebaceous glands. Human skin is about 0.07 inches or approximately 2mm thick.

Skin is composed of 3 primary layers with multiple sublayers.

Skin Health Hub Skin Health Biology of Skin1. The Epidermis is the outer most layer and is our tough protective layer that contains melanin. It is melanin that gives us our skin color and helps protect us against the environment and damaging sun rays.

2. The Dermis is the second layer found under the Epidermis. The Dermis contains nerve endings, sweat and oil glands, hair follicles and includes connective tissue.

3. The Hypo Dermis is the subcutaneous layer that is comprised of fat tissue as well as the blood vessels.

Our skin constantly regenerates itself. The cyclical process of cell regeneration takes approximately 28 days and starts in the dermis of the skin migrating up towards the Epidermis over a two week period. At the end of the two weeks cells reach the bottom layer of the Epidermis. The cells continue moving upward until they reach the surface of the Epidermis. Here, cells spend two more weeks, flattening out until they eventually die and shed. This process of cellular migration from the Dermis to the Epidermis repeats over and over again. It is a continuous process that occurs our whole lives. In fact, every day we shed two to three billion skin cells.

This automatic process of cells renewal is important as our skin is the first line of defense against dehydration, infection, injury and extremes of temperature. The skin not only protects things from entering the body or penetrating and going throughout our systems by detoxify harmful substances, acting as a filter to help our bodies remove the toxins it is able to absorb and utilize nutrients that are topically applied to it as well.

What an amazing organ the skin is! It can keep functioning in this way if ‘do the right thing’ and maintain a healthy diet, exercise, drink water and get plenty of sleep (to name of few), however there are several factors such as aging which can contribute to our system slowing down and a build-up of cells developing if left unattended can create unevenness of skin texture, dehydration, clogging and congestion of the skin. In this instance, the process called Exfoliation will help avoid this.

At Skin Health Hub we have outlined some of the more effective methods of exfoliating to slough-off and gently remove dead skin cells and speed up the process of skin renewal.

Read more > Exfoliation on Sensitive Skin

Read more > Facial Cleansing Brush

Read more > What is Microdermabrasion?

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